Names of the Last Day generally appear either in “Mudhaf & Mudhaf elaihi” form or as “Mausuf & Sifa” form. Below is a brief overview of most, if not all of the names in the two forms.
يَوْم الْقِيَامَةِ – The Day of Resurrection.
This name is the most common name used in The Quran and occurs in seventy verses. It is the Day when all of mankind will be gathered together and Allah Tala will judge everyone.
يَوْمِ الدِّينِ – The Day of Recompense.
It occurs in thirteen verses of The Quran. It is the first one that appears in The Quran and is the most often recited name as being part of the Surah Al-Fatihah.
`Umar said, "Hold yourself accountable before you are held accountable, weigh yourselves before you are weighed, and be prepared for the biggest gathering before He Whose knowledge encompasses your deeds, That Day shall you be brought to Judgement, not a secret of yours will be hidden) (69:18).'' (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/1/4)
الْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ – The Last Day
The phrase occurs in twenty-six verses of The Quran. The name reminds us that there is a life after death, the eternal Afterlife, and what will happen on the Day when we are brought out of the graves and face a trial.
يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ – A Tremendous Day
Azeem is the indefinite form of the attribute of Allah Tala, Al-Azeem. If we can reflect on the greatness of Allah Tala, it can also help us understand the greatness and tremendousness of the Day. It should instill great fear of the Day and inspire us to work hard to avoid punishment.
يَوْمٍ كَبِيرٍ – A Great Day
This attribute of the Day only appears once in Surah Hud in Ayah 11:3. It adds another dimension to the greatness of the event in terms of its capacity, duration and severity.
يَوْمٍ أَلِيمٍ – The Painful Day
This name appears twice in the Quran in verses 11:26 and 43:65. Generally it is associated with the nature of punishment in The Quran as the phrase, “painful punishment.”
يَوْمٍ مُّحِيطٍ - All-Encompassing Day
This attribute appears only once in ayah 11:84 and addresses the punishment on a day from which no one can escape, as it will encompass everything.
يَوْمٌ مَّشْهُودٌ - The Day that will be Witnessed (Ayah 11:103)
According to Ibn Kathir, It is a Day when all of the creation including angels, humans, Jinns and animals will be present and gathered to witness and face the Most Just Judge, Allah Tala. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/11/103).
يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ (19:39) -The Day of Grief and Regrets
In a Hadeeth in which Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah Tala be on him) mentioned this Ayah and said,
أَهْلُ الدُّنْيَا فِي غَفْلَةِ الدُّنْيَا (The people of this life are in the state of heedlessness of this life).” The people of Hellfire will be shown their house in Jannah if they had believed and that certainly will cause sever grief and regrets. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/19/38).
And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and [yet], they are in [a state of] heedlessness, and they do not believe.(19:39). (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/19:39).
يَوْمٍ عَقِيمٍ (22:55) – A Barren Day
But those who disbelieve will not cease to be in doubt of it until the Hour comes upon them unexpectedly or there comes to them the punishment of a barren Day. (22:55). (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/22:55).
According to the next two verses, while the believers will enjoy the Gardens of Delight, the disbelievers will suffer a humiliating torment in the Hell.
يَوْمُ الْبَعْثِ (30:56) - the Day of Resurrection
This name is mentioned in the context that disbelievers would swear on that Day that they did not even stay in this world for an hour and so they did not have enough time and need to be excused. Life in this world is really short. A good example to understand is when a patient is given anesthesia and how he reacts to lapse of time after he wakes up. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/30/55)
يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ (32:29) – The Day of Conquest
Perhaps another translation is The Day of Judgement, as it refers to the Last Day according to Ibn Kathir. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/32/28).
We need to remember that even if believers are under persecution and threats from the disbelievers, that it is temporary and limited to this world. We should remain firm and persistent in our faith. It is the believers who will have the upper hand in the Hereafter for sure. It implies patience and perseverance in the way of Allah Tala.
يَوْمُ الْفَصْلِ – The Day of Judgement
This name occurs six times in the Quran. This Day believers will be separated from the disbelievers. Also, the disbelievers and their contemporaries will be gathered together into subgroups. For example, those who committed adultery will be together. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/37/20).
يَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ – The Day of Account
This name occurs four times in The Quran. We ask Allah Tala to protect us against following our vain desires and that we remember the Day when we will be accountable for our actions.
يَوْمَ التَّلَاقِ (40:15) – The Day of Meeting
We pray to Allah Tala to keep us on alert about the Day of Meeting.
[He is] the Exalted above [all] degrees, Owner of the Throne; He places the inspiration of His command upon whom He wills of His servants to warn of the Day of Meeting.(40:15) (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/40:15).
يَوْمَ الْآزِفَةِ (40:18) - The Approaching Day
Nearness of the Last Day is mentioned several places in The Quran, while people generally neglect it or do not believe in it at all. Having the heart reach the throat and remain there is an extremely fearful state, for which we all need to remain mindful and work hard to glorify Allah Tala and seek His forgiveness and Mercy.
And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Approaching Day, when hearts are at the throats, filled [with distress]. For the wrongdoers there will be no devoted friend and no intercessor [who is] obeyed. (40:18). (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/40:18)
(when the hearts will be at the throats Kazimin.) Qatadah said, "When the hearts reach the throats because of fear, and they will neither come out nor go back to their places.'' This was also the view of `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others. (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/40/18).
يَوْمَ الْجَمْعِ (42:7) – The Day of Assembly
This occurs twice in The Quran in Surah As-Shura and Surah Al-Taghbun, when referring to the Last Day. All of mankind, the first and the last will be gathered in one plain, (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/42/7).
And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur'an that you may warn the Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze. (42:7). (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/42:7).
يَوْمُ الْوَعِيدِ (50:20) - The Day of The Threat
The phrase occurs in The Quran in the context of verses which speak about the two angels appointed by Allah Tala who are recording every word a person utters. The time of death will bring out the truth and then the time when the Horn will be blown, the Day which people were threatened about will have arrived.
And the Horn will be blown. That is the Day of [carrying out] the threat. (50:20) (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/50:20).
يَوْمُ الْخُلُودِ (50:34) – The Day of Eternity
Enter it in peace. This is the Day of Eternity. (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/50:34)
That is a beautiful and soothing statement from Allah Tala for the believers for an eternal life.
يَوْمُ الْخُرُوجِ (50:42) - the Day of Emergence
The Day they will hear the blast [of the Horn] in truth. That is the Day of Emergence [from the graves]. (50:42) http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/50:42.
It is Allah Tala Who gives life and death and to Him is everyone to return. It is easy for Allah Tala to have the earth break away, all of mankind come out of their graves and gather together.
يَوْمُ التَّغَابُنِ (64:9) - the Day of Deprivation
It can also be translated as the Day of mutual Loss and benefit and there can not be any other day with greater loss or gain. Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "There is no mutual loss and gain greater than these entering Paradise and those being taken to the Fire.'' (http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK/64/7).
The Day He will assemble you for the Day of Assembly - that is the Day of Deprivation. And whoever believes in Allah and does righteousness - He will remove from him his misdeeds and admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment. (64:9) http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/64:9
الْيَوْمُ الْحَقُّ (78:39) – The True Day
Allah Tala warns us that the Day is near and the time to take heed is now. The calamity will be so great that the disbelievers would wish that they were dust.
That is the True Day; so he who wills may take to his Lord a [way of] return. (78:39) (http://tanzil.net/#trans/en.sahih/78:39)
الْيَوْمِ الْمَوْعُودِ (85:2) – The Promised Day
The phrase occurs in the context of the event in which the believers were thrown into a ditch just because they believed in Tawhid. The Promised Day will happen and the disbelievers will have the punishment of the Hell and the Burning Fire.
Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir, online, http://www.alim.org/library/quran/AlQuran-tafsir/TIK
Translation of The Quran by Sahih International, online, http://tanzil.net